How are listed buildings graded?
There are 3 grades of listed building in England & Wales:
- Grade I - Buildings of exceptional interest such as very fine country houses, important or old churches.
- Grade II* - Particularly important buildings of more than special interest such as most country houses, important churches or very old secular buildings.
- Grade II – These are buildings of special interest, which warrant every effort being made to preserve them. 96% of listed buildings are Grade II.
There are 3 grades of listed building in Northern Ireland:
- Grade A – Buildings of greatest importance to Northern Ireland including both outstanding architectural set-pieces and the least altered examples of each representative style, period and type.
- Grade B+ - Buildings which might have merited grade A status but for detracting features such as an incomplete design, lower quality additions or alterations.
- Grade B - Buildings of local importance and good examples of a particular period or style. A degree of alteration or imperfection of design may be acceptable.
There are 3 grades of listed building in Scotland:
- Grade A - Buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of some particular period, style or building type.
- Grade B - Buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of some particular period, style or building type which may have been altered.
- Grade C - Buildings of local importance, lesser examples of any period, style, or building type, as originally constructed or moderately altered; and simple traditional buildings which group well with others in categories A and B.
Can additional buildings be listed?
How do I find out if a building is listed?
When a building was originally included on the List, the owner would have been notified by the Local Council. If you have purchased a building after it was listed, then your solicitors’ land search should have identified the listing.
When is listed building consent needed?
You will need to apply for Listed Building Consent prior to any of the following works being undertaken:
- Alterations, both internally and externally, which affect the character of a listed building.
- Partial demolitions.
To summarise, all works other than minor ‘like for like’ repairs would require Listed Building Consent.
In all cases you should seek advice from the Planning Services Section.
Can listed buildings be extended or altered?
Yes, inclusion on the Statutory List does not necessarily prevent alteration or extension, although Listed Building Consent will also be required, in addition to normal planning permission.
It is generally possible to find satisfactory ways to make additions or alterations, with specialist and/or professional advice and guidance. This work requires great skill and care in order to conserve the historic features, character and setting of the building. If you wish to carry out such works you are strongly recommended to contact one of the regional professional bodies to find a consultant specialising in historic building work.
How do I apply for listed building consent?
How long does it take to obtain listed building consent?
Allow at least eight weeks when applying for Listed Building Consent. If works are urgent, you should discuss this with the Planning Services Department. If the building is Grade I or Grade II*, a longer period should be allowed in order for the local planning authority to undertake the additional consultations required for these special buildings.
What are the penalties for work carried out without consent on a listed building?
If you carry out unauthorised work or do not follow the details of approved plans, you will be in contravention of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990. This may result in enforcement proceedings. You will be required to make good any damage or to reinstate any works which are not approved at your own expense. You may also be liable to prosecution as carrying out unauthorised works to a listed building is a criminal offence.
Reinstatement is expensive and inconvenient. You are strongly advised to seek the advice of the Planning Services section before carrying out any works to the building. When a property is sold, a solicitors’ search will highlight all Listed Building Applications made. Failure to follow correct procedures can delay or jeopardise the sale of the property.
How often is an owner required to undertake maintenance of a listed building?
Owners of listed buildings are responsible for keeping their buildings in good repair. Owners are encouraged to regularly maintain their buildings as, in the long term, it should be the most cost-effective solution.
Maintenance and repairs do not require consent if they are carried out on a straightforward replacement or repair basis. Repairs should be carried out using materials and techniques which conserve the historic fabric. For example, damaged timber frame members should be repaired where possible, by piecing in, bracing or strapping rather than wholesale replacement of members. Timber frames should never be cleaned by a mechanical method, e.g. sand blasting.
If an owner fails to keep a building in a reasonable state of repair the Council may, as a last resort, serve a Repairs Notice specifying the work to be carried out. This will ensure the proper preservation of the building.
If repair works are not carried out the Council also has powers to carry out repairs and charge the costs to the owners. In extreme cases the Council may purchase the building, with minimal compensation, and carry out the necessary work.
Many problems with buildings relate to lack of maintenance. Keeping your building in good repair will involve small amounts of expenditure over time rather than large expenditure when things go wrong.
Can I be forced to repair my listed building even if I can't afford it?
Are any grants available towards the cost of repair?
My house is in a conservation area. What does that mean?
Conservation areas are designed to give some protection to local areas of interest, and usually contain some listed and some unlisted buildings. They are designated by local authorities. Substantial demolition within a conservation area requires consent. In addition, certain "permitted development rights" that apply to domestic buildings are reduced in conservation areas, so planning permission is needed for changes such as the installation of dormer windows on the front of a roof. You will also need permission to lop or fell trees. New development in conservation areas is also more strictly controlled than normal.
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